Hyundai Merchant Marine

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Hyundai Merchant Marine
Industry Container shipping
Founded 1976
Headquarters Seoul, South Korea
Area served

Hyundai Merchant Marine (HMM) (KRX: 011200) is a South Korean integrated logistics and containerized freight transport company, with more than 50 sea routes, over 100 ports of call and operating about 138 vessels. HMM provides worldwide global service networks, diverse logistics facilities, leading IT shipping related systems, a professional highly trained staff, and continual effort to provide premiere transportation services.[1] Beginning with three VLCCs in 1976, HMM has strengthened it competitiveness to advance new services such as bulk carrier, tramper, container carrier, LNG carrier and special product carrier. As a result, HMM has a stable business structure that can withstand sector fluctuations by operating diversified businesses.[1] HMM currently is working with main creditor Korea Development Bank to ward off bankruptcy by undergoing extensive restructuring by reducing cost by over 30%.[2]

Hyundai Merchant Marine is the world's 15th largest container line in terms of vessel capacity. HMM, together with Hanjin Shipping, moves almost all of Korea's exports.[2]


HMM has formed a global business network with four international headquarters, 27 subsidiaries, 76 branches, five overseas offices and 10 liaison offices. It is highly regarded as one of the world’s top integrated-logistics companies with its targeted market prospects, efficient organization, top personnel, and advanced internet systems.[1]


HMM transports nationally strategic materials such as crude oil, iron ore/coal and diverse special products as well as import/export goods. Earnings are eight trillion Korean won per year, clearly playing a major role in Korea as a vital economic artery[1]

History Timeline[3][edit]



File:History 1978.gif
1976 - Three tankers purchased (Korea Sun, Korea Star, and Korea Banner).
  • Company established as Asia Merchant Marine on March 25, with a capital of 200 million.
  • Asia Merchant Marine Co., Ltd. (the precursor of HMM) established.
  • Three tankers purchased (Korea Sun, Korea Star, and Korea Banner).


  • Bulker cargo tramp service and deep-sea tug service began.
  • Began transportation of port construction jacket module to Jubal for Hyundai Engineering & Construction.
  • Delivery taken of two bulk carriers, Asia I and Asia II.


  • Conventional liner service opened between the Far East and the Middle East.
  • Tramper liner service established between Asia and the Middle East.
  • Signed Contract of Affreightment (COA) with Kukdong Petroleum for Middle East-Busan route.


  • Container service introduced between the Far East and the Middle East.
  • Established Tokyo branch and Incheon office.
  • Crude oil transportation service initiated.



File:History 1984.gif
Four 1,400 TEU full container vessels committed to the Far East-U.S. route.
  • Specialized car carrier service established.
  • Commenced Asia-Middle East liner service.
  • PCC (Pure Car Carrier) service inaugurated on the Far East/Europe, Korea/Australia and Korea/India routes.
  • Purchased “Hyundai No.1”, first car carrier in Korea.


  • Published company magazine “Asang”.
  • Ore & Coal carrier service initiated with the purchase of the “Hyundai Pacific”.
  • Opened New York office.


  • Conventional liner service introduced among the Far East, Western and Eastern US and Gulf of Mexico.
  • Company name changed to HYUNDAI MERCHANT MARINE co., Ltd. On August 9.
  • Commenced conventional liner service in Far East-US West/East Coat-Gulf of Mexico.
  • Added vessels “Asia No.6” and “Asia No.12”.
  • Established “Asia Merchant Marine America, Inc.” in California.


  • Conventional liner service between Southeast Asia and the Eastern US, and container service between the Western US and Australia opened.
  • Commenced liner service for Canada-US West Coat-Australia.
  • Constructed and purchased of ore and coal carrier “Hyundai Oceania” (139,887 DWT).
  • Established London and Jakarta offices.
  • Asia Merchant Marine Co., Ltd. changed the name to Hyundai Merchant Marine Co., Ltd.


  • Paid-in capital increased to $88.6 billion.
  • Integrated Halla Marine Transportation, Shinhan Marine Transportation, and Donghae Merchant Marine as shipping agents, and Sunil Merchant Marine as subsidiary shipper.
  • Ore & coal service provided by “Hyundai Oceania “on Korea/Brazil route; “Hyundai Pacific".
  • Launched on Korea/Australia, Canada route.
  • Established Hong Kong office.
  • Constructed coal carrier “Hyundai Island” (127,000 DWT).


  • Full container service opened between the Far East and the Western Us.
  • Constructed and purchased the world’s largest ore & coal carrier “Hyundai Giant”.
  • Four 1,400 TEU full container vessels committed to the Far East-U.S. route.
  • Merged with Donghae Merchant Marine and Shinhan Merchant Marine.


  • Semi-container service on route opened linking Europe, the South Pacific and Australia.
  • Constructed and operated exclusive coal carrier “Hyundai Island” first in Korea.
  • On-line system established between Seoul and Los Angeles.
  • Six semi container vessels allocated to Europe, the South Pacific and Australia routes with weekly fixed day service.
  • Opened for exclusive terminal in LA.


  • Paid-in Capital increased to $109.5 billion.
  • Delivery of six Pure Car & Truck Carriers.
  • Took delivery and operated pure car carrier “Hyundai No.108” (3,500 automobile capacity).


  • Double stack train (DST) rail freight service established between long beach, Chicago and the Eastern US.
  • Merged with Korea Marine Transportation Co., Ltd.
  • Double Stack Train (DST) service inaugurated linking Long Beach, Chicago and New Jersey.
  • Joint service contract signed with K-Line for the Pacific Northwest route.
  • Worldwide Information Gathering System (WINGS) service inaugurated on the Internet.


  • DST service for Gulf of Mexico region of the US introduced.
  • Hyundai Merchant Marine Japan Co., Ltd. established in Tokyo.
  • Hyundai Merchant Marine (Europe) GmbH established in Hamburg.
  • FA 2000 Movement (a plan to become one of the world's top five shipping companies) inaugurated.



File:History 1996.gif
Seven of the world"s largest and fastest container ships(5,551 TEU) purchased.
  • Hyundai intermodal Inc.(HII) established as a subsidiary to provide a full-service intermodal transport service within the U.S.
  • Created Hyundai Intermodal Inc. (HII) for inland transportation of USA.
  • DST network expanded in the United States to include Dallas, Memphis and Houston.
  • Designated as the first LNG operation shipping company in Korea.
  • Founded joint company Korea-Soviet Shipping with Chunkyung Shipping.


  • Hyundai intermodal Inc. (HII) established as a subsidiary to provide a full-service intermodal transport service within the U.S.
  • Intra-Asia service established.
  • Contract entered to build LNG carrier with Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.
  • Opened first domestic direct route for Busan-Vostochny.


  • Full-container service began, along with Sea-land service, between the Far East and Europe. Five 4,411 TEU full container ships deployed in the Far East-US route.
  • Joint operation with SEA-LAND initiated on Asia Europe Express route.
  • Five 4,411 TEU class full container vessels launched.
  • Hyundai Merchant Marine (Hong Kong) Co., Ltd. established.


  • Hyundai Merchant Marine America (HMMA) received both ISO 9002 certification and ISM code.
  • Established 4 offices in North China (Shanghai, Qingdao, Dalian, and Tianjin).
  • Established Hyundai America Shipping Agency (HASA).
  • Acquired exclusive use of container terminals in Busan and Kwangyang.
  • HMM became the first shipping company worldwide to acquire ISM Code and ISO 9002 certification at the same time.


  • Feeder service network developed in Southeast Asia (Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapore).
  • Asia-Western US (PNW) exclusive service route started.
  • President Park, Se-yong awarded the trophy for excellence in business on Marine Transport Day.
  • Hyundai Utopia (Korea's first LNG carrier) christened.
  • Constructed and purchased “Asia Beauty” equipped with PCTC.
  • Leased private terminal in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  • Ordered three of the world’s fastest container vessels with 5,551 TEU.


  • Hyundai Logistics Co.Ltd. container service business HQ incorporated into the Seoul branch office.
  • Container service begun between Europe and the South pacific with England’s container ship.
  • Ordered VLCC “Hyundai Star” (280,000 DWT).
  • Founded inland depot in Hong Kong.
  • Introduced the first international video-conferencing system in shipping industry (Seoul-LA).
  • Ordered seven of the largest container vessels (5,551 TEU).
  • Established Hyundai Merchant Marine China Co., Ltd. and four representative offices.


  • Far East-North America route reorganized with K-line of Japan
  • Contract finalized with Volvo and Saab for the eastbound car transport service from Europe.
  • Three of the world’s largest car carriers (6,000 vehicle capacity) acquired.
  • Seven of the world’s largest and fastest container ships (5,551 TEU) purchased.
  • ISO 14001 certification acquired, the first among the world’s multimodal transportation company.
  • Contract made with Norasia Lines Ltd and Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. for joint services on Asia/Europe route.
  • Delivery of seven 5,551 TEU container vessels.
  • Delivery of HMM's second and Korea's fourth LNG carrier, Hyundai Greenpia.
  • Started joint operation with K-Line between Far East and North America.
  • Opened exclusive container terminal in Kaohsiung.
  • Acquired ISO 14001 certification.
  • Sales reached US$2.53 billion.


  • Off-dock container yard acquired in Tianjin. President Park, Se-yong awarded Gold Tower medal for his contribution to Korea’s shipping industry on May 31-the second Ocean Day.
  • Global container service provided with APL and MOL.
  • Delivery taken of ten vessels (four 2,200 TEU container vessels, two 6,000 unit PCTCs each, two VLCCs and two bulk carriers).
  • Inland container depot (ICD) opened at Euiwang, Korea HMM Bangkok office changed to a subsidiary, Hyundai Merchant Marine (Thailand) Co., Ltd.
  • Signed lease agreement with the Port of Tacoma President Park Se-yong awarded a Gold Tower Medal for his contribution to the shipping industry in Korea.
  • HMM Entered FEFC (Far Eastern Freight Conference) Sales reached US$3.02 billion.


  • The New World Alliance" service begins together with APL and MOL.
  • Started Woodchip Carrier Service.
  • Established "Hyundai Fleet Management System" which covers information such as weather conditions, vessel locations and current changes.
  • Became the first Korean shipping company to initiate a Korea-Middle East Service.
  • Took delivery of a 300,000ton VLCC.
  • Cooperation with Korea Maritime Corporation in the Korea-Indonesia route.
  • Employed 4 female crew members.
  • Received "The Carrier Service Partnership Award" from Payless Shoe sources
  • Took delivery of a new coal carrier, Hyundai Power.
  • Took delivery of a PCTC, Asian Captain with a capacity of 6,000 vehicles.
  • Entered JFTC(Japan Mediterranean Freight Conference).
  • Acquired two cruise ship-Hyundai Kumgang and Hyundai Pongnae.
  • Sales revenue for the half of 1998 reached Korea won 2,441 billion won.


  • Obtained the official international "Y2K Statement" in the field of vessel, the first among the shipping business.
  • Opened Hyundai Busan container terminal, the largest public container terminal in Korea.
  • Took delivery of a PCTC (Pure Car & Truck Carrier) capable of 6,000 vehicles, the Asian Dynasty.
  • Took delivery of two LNG carriers, Hyundai Technopia and Hyundai Cosmopia.
  • Ordered the construction of 5 super container vessels in the 6,400 TEU range.
  • HMM Container Terminals acquired ISO 9002 / ISO 14001 Certification at the same time.
  • Mar, Supported construction of the Marine Simulation Training & Research Center at Korea Maritime University.
  • Feb, Acquired 100% management rights for California Terminals in Long Beach.
  • Apr, Opened the exclusive container terminal (WUT) at the port of Tacoma, U.S.A.
  • Aug Merged Korea-Soviet Shipping Co., Ltd.



File:History 2001.gif
Launched new 8,600 TEU containership 'Hyundai Brave'.
  • Feb, Proclaimed the new management vision for the 21st century, 'HMM21'.
  • Mar, Deployed an LNG carrier, Hyundai Aquapia.
  • May, President and CEO, Choong-Shik Kim was awarded Gold Tower industrial medal in the 5th Ocean Day.
  • Jul, Deployed an LNG carrier, Hyundai Oceanpia.
  • Nov, Launched new organization, Hyundai Merchant Marine (France) S.A. in France.
  • Dec, Sales revenue reached US$4.5 billion.


  • Feb to Jun, Deployed five 6,500 TEU container vessels to the Asia-North America service route.
  • Apr, Built a 'Cyber Customer Service Center' in the HMM internet homepage.
  • May, Collaborated with world's major shipping companies in forming a shipping portal site, 'GT Nexus'.
  • Jun, Started 'Mobile Internet Service' the first in Korea.
  • Aug, Ordered to construct a 5,700 TEU container vessel.


  • Jan, Opened a new service route between the East Asia and Australia/New Zealand with FESCO.
  • Jan, Established a new internet site, (Vessel Management System), first in the shipping field.
  • Mar, Selected as a green environmental evaluation of supplier from Tetra Laval Group.
  • May, Opened additional service route, PSV, to expand the Trans-pacific coverage between Asia and the west coast of the U.S and Canada.
  • Aug, Sold the Car Carrier division.
  • Aug, Selected as a "Best Shipping Company" by "Best Buy".
  • Sep, Mr. Noh Jeong-ik was appointed as the new President and CEO.
  • Nov, Permanent non-dispute declared between labor and management.
  • Nov, Ranked 13th Korean company in the '2002 brand-asset evaluation' hosted by the Institute of Industrial Policy Studies (IPS).


  • Jan, South-East/West Asia headquarters established in Singapore.
  • Feb, Developed new vessel communication system-communication system between ship and shore.
  • Mar, California United Terminals, Inc. (CUT) was recognized as the safest container terminal by the PMA.
  • Apr, Received number one carrier award for 2002 by the J.C.Penny. Mar, California United Terminals, Inc.
  • (CUT) was recognized as the safest container terminal by the PMA.
  • Apr, Took delivery of the "Hyundai Confidence", a 5,500 TEU container vessel.
  • June, Opened a new weekly Mediterranean Asia service (AMS).
  • July, Launched New York Express service (NYX).
  • Aug, Received "Carrier of the year award" for 2002 by "Best Buy"
  • Sep, "Hyundai Highway" was selected as 2003's best PSC ship (Port State Control) by Busan Regional Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Office.
  • Oct, Held naming ceremony of the "Hyundai Glory", a new 4,700 TEU container vessel.
  • Oct, Presented with a certification of appreciation by the United States Department of Commerce (Commercial Service).
  • Nov, HMM Scandinavia AB established in Sweden, Denmark and Norway.
  • Nov, China headquarters established in Shanghai, China.
  • Dec, Ore/coal carrier, "Hyundai Power" achieved Panama SSP (Ship Security Plan) certification in compliance with the ISPS code.


  • Opened a new office in Melbourne, Australia. (1.26)
  • "Hyundai Glory", a 4,700 TEU container vessel, was deployed to the NYX service (New York Express). (2.19)
  • Signed the contract for new VLCC with Dongbuka No.1 Ship Investment Co., Ltd. (3.2)
  • California United Terminals, Inc. (CUT) and Washington United Terminals, Inc. (WUT) were recognized as the safest terminals by the PMA. (3.3)
  • Appointed a 2004 Global Partnership Carrier (GPC) by Sony. (4)
  • Commenced a new Pacific-China Express (PCX service) to strengthen Chinese market share. (4.30)
  • Held domestic and overseas IR (Investors Relation) meeting for the first time after HMM was established. (5.11)
  • Sold Treasury Stock to Hutchison Whampoa Ltd. (6.9)
  • Achieved ISPS certification. (7.1)
  • Hyundai Group announced its Vision 2010. (8)
  • Won “Quality Partnership Award” from Best Buy. (8.10)
  • Signed contract for three new 6,800 TEU container vessels. (8.18)
  • Signed contract for three new 4,700 TEU container vessels. (8.26)
  • Extended Kaohsiung Terminal Contract. (10.12)
  • HMM’s containership the “Hyundai Freedom” was selected as a “best ship” by PSC (Port Safety Control). (10.13)
  • Secured the right for exclusive use of Gwangyang Port phase 2-2 for 30 years. (10.29)
  • Established HMM Finland office. (12.1)
  • Received an ISO Award from DNV, and awarded an appreciation plaque by the Korea Marine Pollution Response Corp. (12.3)
  • Contract for three 4,700 TEU container ships. (12.8)


  • HMM Ho Chi Minh office opened. (1.31)
  • Ordered four 8,600TEU containerships, five 4,700TEU ships in block. (2.16)
  • i-VMS (internet Vessel Management System) development.
  • CUT/WUT won PMA “Safety Award”. (3.21)
  • Selected as the best company by the Korea Logistics Academy. (4.2)
  • New service CSI opened. (5.4)
  • Selected 2005 “Global partnership Carrier” by Sony for two consecutive years. (5. 24)
  • “Hyundai Olympia” has been selected “Green Ship”. (5.25)
  • HMM Ningbo office opened. (7.7)
  • Establishes Indian Subsidiary. (7.15)
  • Extended alliance agreement with APL, MOL to 2012 [TNWA alliance]. (9.9)
  • Expanded co-operation with Grand Alliance. (10.6)
  • Set up a sisterhood relationship with Beophwan-dong, Jejudo. (10.7)
  • Held a naming ceremony of new VLCC, “Universal Queen”. (11.9)
  • 310,000 DWT VLCC “Universal Crown” was deployed. (12.22)


  • Opened branch office in Warsaw. (1.2)
  • CUT won PMA safety award. (3.3)
  • Mr. Noh Jeong-ik re-elected as President and CEO of HMM. (3.10)
  • Awarded “Green Flag” from The Long Beach Board of Harbor Commissioners. (3.20)
  • Held the 30th anniversary ceremony, proclaimed HMM's new vision for 2010. (3.25)
  • Awarded “Green Flag” from The Long Beach Board of Harbor Commissioners. (3.20)
  • Selected as the terminal operator for 2-2 container terminal of Busan New Port. (3.31)
  • Held the naming ceremony of “Hyundai Shanghai”. (4.4)
  • Signing Ceremony for operating Busan New Port container terminal. (4.28)
  • Received the “Carrier of the Year” award from Target Corporation. (5.23)
  • Appointed a “Global Partnership Carrier” by Sony. (6.6)
  • Launched 6,800 TEU container ships “Hyundai Busan”. (6.22)
  • Launched new 6,800TEU container ship “Hyundai Hong Kong”. (7.27)
  • Launched New Asia-Australia Service. (10.31)
  • Export Tower Award. (11.30)
  • Commencement of South American Service. (12.1)
  • Received OHSAS 18001 [Occupational health and safety management system] (12.1)


  • Opened its Renewed Homepage (1.2)
  • Launched 6,800 TEU containership ‘Hyundai Colombo’ (1.22)
  • Launched 6,800 TEU containership ‘Hyundai Bangkok’ (1.29)
  • HMM Ningbo Selected as best foreign capital invested company (1.29)
  • HMM Busan Branch received prize from Busan Main Customs (3.5)
  • Launched 6,800 TEU containership ‘Hyundai Jakarta’ (4.9)
  • Opened its Japanese local website (4.16)
  • Launched 4,700 TEU containership ‘Hyundai Forward’ (4.20)
  • Opened a new container service route CTX(China-Thainland Express) (4.26)
  • Appointed a Global Partnership Carrier by Sony four consecutive years (5.15)
  • Launched 4,700 TEU containership ‘Hyundai Unity’ (5.18)
  • Jung Yeng-gu, the captain of HMM’s LNG carrier ‘Hyundai Technopia’,won an ‘Ocean Day’ official commendation (5.31)
  • TNWA launched ESX(East Coast Savannah Express) and SZX(Suez Service) (6.4)
  • Selected to Develop Rotterdam Container Terminal (7.17)
  • Established HMM Italy SRL (7.18)
  • Established HMM Vietnam (7.27)
  • Commencement of 'Asia-Chennai' Service (8.5)
  • Established a dedicated express rail service between Hamburg and Mlawa (8.23)
  • Commencement of EBX(East-Mediterranean/Black Sea Express) (11.4)


  • Named Mr. Kim, Seong-man as the new President (1.4)
  • Launched new 8,600 TEU containership 'Hyundai Brave'(1.10)
  • Established subsidiary in Russia (3.11)
  • Appointed Mr. Kim, Seong-man as President and CEO
  • Established subsidiary in Dubai, U.A.E. (4.1)
  • Established subsidiary in Sydney, Australia (7.1)
  • Established subsidiary in Vienna, Austria (8.4)
  • Held a 'Cultivating Seoul Forest' event (9.20)
  • Proclaimed new 「4T」corporate culture (10.1)
  • Held 'HMM Merchant-ship Class' event (10.12)


  • HMM Europe accredited as AEO(Authorized Economic Operator) (1.20)
  • Held the 10th anniversary ceremony of WUT (6.26)
  • Held 'Children's Container Ship Visit' event (8.20)
  • Opened the Danube Express service [a rail service between Budapest and Hamburg] (8.26)
  • Participated in a Habitat for Humanity venture (8.28)
  • Began a slot exchange with Hanjin Shipping on the Asia-East Coast of U.S. route (10.13)
  • Held 'Friend Ship Box Project' event (10.24)



File:HMM Dream.jpg
Held naming ceremony for 'Hyundai Dream', the 13,100TEU container vessel.
  • Certified as Korea AEO (Authorized Economic Operator) 'AA' level, a first for Korean Shipping companies (2.1)
  • HMM Headquarter relocated to 'Hyundai Group Building' in Yeonji-dong, Seoul. (3.2)
  • Formed a new joint venture, HD Atlas Co., LTD., with Dongbang Transport and Logistics and Hyundai Logiem (3.23)
  • Held the opening ceremony of Hyundai Pusan New-port Terminal (6.22)
  • Opened a mobile website 'HMM SMART (' (9.6)
  • Established a joint venture 'Netruck Franz' with Hyundai Logiem and SK Energy (11.17)


  • Named Kim Seong-Man as Vice Chairman and Lee Suk-Hui as President and CEO. (1.3)
  • Opened CUT(California United Terminal) at the Port of Los Angeles (2.18)
  • Signed a contract for five 13,100TEU container vessels with DSME (8.10)
  • HMM named 'Provider of the Year' by Target (9.9)
  • Proclaimed new corporate vision. (10.31)
  • Was awarded ‘Green Management System’ certification, the first company in the Korean maritime industry. (11.18)
  • Joined world’s largest shipping alliance, G6. (12.21)


  • HMM named as Sony's 'Best Partner Carrier' (5.26)
  • CEO Lee Suk-Hui received Gold Tower Order of Industrial Service Merit. (5.31)
  • HMM named 'Provider of the Year' by Target (7.23)
  • Established a ship management company ‘Hyundai Ocean Service Co., Ltd.'. (8.1)
  • MV. Pacific Pride received ‘eco-friendly vessel’ certification, the first to do so in Korea. (8.31)
  • Held the opening ceremony of Hyundai Pusan New-port Terminal (6.22)
  • Named Lee Suk-Hui as Vice Chairman and Yoo Chang-Keun as President. (11.27)


  • Launched an application for smartphone and tablet using customers. (2.12)
  • HPNT wins ‘Terminal of the Year’ award for the 2nd consecutive year.
  • WUT(Washington United Terminals) received the Port of Tacoma’s Business Magnet Award (6.12)
  • Ordered 4 Cape-size Bulk Carriers for delivering thermal coal from Hanjin Heavy Industries (7.10)
  • Participated in “Pusan New Port Container Terminal Phase 2-4 Project” (8.27)
  • Launched New Container Service, PJX(Pusan Jakarta Express), connecting Korea-Indonesia (8.29)
  • Opened New ODCY in Qingdao, China (9.5)
  • Awarded ‘Carrier of the Year’ by Toys R Us (9.12)
  • Recognized with ‘Carbon Management Award’ by CDP Korea (11.4)
  • G6 Alliance Planned Expansion to Trans-Pacific West Coast and Trans-Atlantic Trades (12.5)
  • Signed Charter Contract for Six 10,000 TEU Container Vessels for 2016 (12.19)


  • Held naming ceremony for 'Hyundai Dream', the 13,100TEU container vessel (2.28)
  • Mr. Lee Seock-Dong was appointed as new CEO (3.28)
  • Opened Global Documentation Center in Mumbai, India (4.8)
  • Received TARGET’s ‘2013 Outstanding Partnership Award’ (5.9)
  • Mr. Lee Paik-Hoon was appointed as the new co-CEO (9.24)
  • Selected as Climate Performance Leader for Fourth Consecutive Year (10.29)


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Hyundai Merchant Marine". Retrieved 2015-05-13. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Paris, Costas (12 May 2016). "Global Ship Operators Set to Strike Vessel-Sharing Deal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  3. "Hyundai Merchant Marine". Retrieved 2015-05-13. 

External links[edit]