In wooden shipbuilding, each frame is composed of several sections, so that the grain of the wood can follow the curve of the frame. Starting from the keel, these are the floor (which crosses the keel and joins the frame to the keel), the first futtock, the second futtock, the top timber, and the rail stanchion. In steel shipbuilding, the entire frame can be formed in one piece by rivetting or welding sections; in this case the floor remains a separate piece, joining the frame on each side to the keel.
Frame numbers are the numerical values given to the frames; they begin at 1 with the first bow frame, and numbers increase sequentially to the last stern frame. The total number vary per the length of a ship.
The frames support lengthwise members which run parallel to the keel, from the bow to the stern; these may variously be called stringers, strakes, or clamps. The clamp supports the transverse deck beams, on which the deck is laid.
- Turpin, Edward A.; McEwen, William A. (1980). Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook (4th ed.). Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-056-X.
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